Allergic reaction là gì

Allergies are abnormal immune system reactions to things that are typically harmless to most people. When you”re allergic to something, your immune system mistakenly believes that this substance is harmful to your body.

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Your eyes itch, your nose is running, you”re sneezing, and you”re covered in hives. It”s allergy season again, and all you want to bởi vì is curl up inlớn a ball of misery.

There has khổng lồ be something you can vày to lớn feel better. After all, doctors seem lớn have a cure for everything, right? Not for allergies. But there are ways to relieve allergy symptoms or avoid getting the symptoms, even though you can”t actually get rid of the allergies themselves.

What are allergies?

Allergies are abnormal immune system reactions khổng lồ things that are typically harmless to most people. When you”re allergic to something, your immune system mistakenly believes that this substance is harmful khổng lồ your body. (Substances that cause allergic reactions, such as certain foods, dust, plant pollen, or medicines, are known as allergens.)

In an attempt khổng lồ protect the body, the immune system produces IgE antibodies khổng lồ that allergene. Those antibodies then cause certain cells in the body lớn release chemicals inlớn the bloodstream, one of which is histamine.

The histamine then acts on the eyes, nose, throat, lungs, skin, or gastrointestinal tract & causes the symptoms of the allergic reaction. Future exposure khổng lồ that same allergene will trigger this antibody toàn thân response again. This means that every time you come inlớn contact with that allergene, you”ll have sầu an allergic reaction.

Allergic reactions can be mild, lượt thích a runny nose, or they can be severe, like difficulty breathing. An asthma attachồng, for example, is often an allergic reaction lớn something that is breathed inlớn the lungs by a person who is susceptible.

Some types of allergies produce multiple symptoms, và in rare cases, an allergic reaction can become very severe — this severe reaction is called anaphylaxis. Signs of anaphylaxis include difficulty breathing, difficulty swallowing, swelling of the lips, tongue, and throat or other parts of the body toàn thân, và dizziness or loss of consciousness.

Anaphylaxis usually occurs minutes after exposure to a triggering substance, such as a peanut, but some reactions might be delayed by as long as 4 hours. Luckily, anaphylactic reactions don”t occur often & can be treated successfully if proper medical procedures are followed.

Why bởi vì people get allergies?

The tendency lớn develop allergies is often hereditary, which means it can be passed down through your genes. However, just because a parent or sibling has allergies doesn”t mean you will definitely get them, too. A person usually doesn”t inherit a particular allergy, just the likelihood of having allergies.

What things are people are allergic to?

Some of the most common allergens are:

Foods. Food allergies are most comtháng in infants and often go away as people get older. Although some food allergies can be serious, many simply cause annoying symptoms lượt thích an itchy rash, a stuffy nose, & diarrhea. The foods that people are most commonly allergic to lớn are milk & other dairy products, eggs, wheat, soy, peanuts & tree nuts, và seafood.

Insect bites và stings. The venom (poison) in insect bites & stings can cause allergic reactions, và can be severe và even cause an anaphylactic reaction in some people.

Airborne particles. Often called environmental allergens, these are the most common allergens. Examples of airborne particles that can cause allergies are dust mites (tiny bugs that live sầu in house dust); mold spores; animal dander (flakes of scaly, dried skin, & dried saliva from your pets); and pollen from grass, ragweed, & trees.

Medicines. Antibiotics — medications used lớn treat infections — are the most common type of medicines that cause allergic reactions. Many other medicines, including over-the-counter medications (those you can buy without a prescription), also can cause allergic-type reactions.

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Chemicals. Some cosmetics or laundry detergents can make people break out in an itchy rash (hives). Usually, this is because someone has a reaction lớn the chemicals in these products. Dyes, household cleaners, & pesticides used on lawns or plants also can cause allergic reactions in some people.

How vày doctors diagnose & treat allergies?

If your family doctor suspects you might have an allergy, he or she might refer you to lớn an allergist (a doctor who specializes in allergy treatment) for further testing. The allergist will ask you about your own allergy symptoms (such as how often they occur and when) & about whether any family members have sầu allergies. The allergist also will perform tests lớn confirm an allergy — these will depover on the type of allergy someone has & may include a skin test or blood chạy thử.

The most complete way to lớn avoid allergic reactions is khổng lồ stay away from the substances that cause them (called avoidance). Doctors can also treat some allergies using medications and allergy shots.


In some cases, lượt thích food allergies, avoiding the allergen is a life-saving necessity. That”s because, unlike allergies to airborne particles that can be treated with shots or medications, the only way to treat food allergies is to avoid the allergene entirely. For example, people who are allergic khổng lồ peanuts should avoid not only peanuts, but also any food that might contain even tiny traces of them.

Avoidance can help protect people against non-food or chemical allergens, too. In fact, for some people, eliminating exposure to an allerren is enough khổng lồ prsự kiện allergy symptoms và they don”t need to lớn take medicines or go through other allergy treatments.

Here are some things that can help you avoid airborne allergens:

* Keep family pets out of certain rooms, like your bedroom, and bathe them if necessary.

* Remove carpets or rugs from your room (hard floor surfaces don”t collect dust as much as carpets do).

* Don”t hang heavy drapes & get rid of other items that allow dust to lớn accumulate.

* Clean frequently (if your allergy is severe, you may be able to lớn get someone else lớn vì chưng your dirty work!)

* Use special covers lớn seal pillows and mattresses if you”re allergic lớn dust mites.

* If you”re allergic to pollen, keep windows closed when pollen season”s at its peak, change your clothing after being outdoors — and don”t mow lawns.

* If you”re allergic to mold, avoid damp areas, such as basements, & keep bathrooms and other mold-prone areas clean and dry.


Medications such as pills or nasal sprays are often used to treat allergies. Although medications can control the allergy symptoms (such as sneezing, headaches, or a stuffy nose), they are not a cure & can”t make the tendency khổng lồ have allergic reactions go away. Many effective sầu medications are available to lớn treat comtháng allergies, & your doctor can help you khổng lồ identify those that work for you.

Another type of medication that some severely allergic people will need to have on hvà is a shot of epinephrine, a fast-acting medicine that can help offset an anaphylactic reaction. This medicine comes in an easy-to-carry container that looks like a pen. Epinephrine is available by prescription only. If you have sầu a severe allergy và your doctor thinks you should carry it, he or she will give you instructions on how to use it.


Allergy shots are also referred to lớn as allergene immunotherapy. By receiving injections of small amounts of an allergen, your body toàn thân can gradually develop antibodies & undergo other immune system changes that help reduce the reaction khổng lồ that allergen.

Immunotherapy is only recommended for specific allergies, such as allergies khổng lồ things you might breathe in (lượt thích pollen, pet dander, or dust mites) or insect allergies. Immunotherapy doesn”t help with some allergies, lượt thích food allergies.

Although many people find the thought of allergy shots unsettling, shots can be highly effective — & it doesn”t take long to lớn get used khổng lồ them. Often, the earlier someone receives allergy shots, the more they help the body build up antibodies that fight the allergies. Although the shots don”t cure allergies, they vì tend to lớn raise a person”s tolerance when exposed lớn the allergen, which means fewer or less severe symptoms.

If you”re severely allergic khổng lồ bites & stings, talk to lớn a doctor about getting venom immunotherapy (shots) from an allergist.

Is it a cold or allergies?

If the spring and summer seasons leave you sneezing & wheezing, you might have sầu allergies. Colds, on the other hand, are more likely khổng lồ occur at any time (though they”re more comtháng in the colder months).

Colds and allergies produce similar symptoms, but colds usually last only a week or so. And although both may cause your nose & eyes lớn itch, colds và other viral infections can also cause a fever, aches and pains, và colored mucus. Cold symptoms often worsen as the days go on và then gradually improve sầu, but allergies begin immediately after exposure to lớn the offending allergene & last as long as that exposure continues.

If you”re not sure whether your symptoms are caused by allergies or a cold, talk with your doctor.

Dealing with allergies

So once you know you have allergies, how bởi vì you khuyến mãi with them? First và foremost, try lớn avoid things you”re allergic to!

If you have a food allergy, that means avoiding foods that trigger symptoms và learning how lớn read food labels lớn make sure you”re not consuming even tiny amounts of allergens. People with environmental allergies should keep their house clean of dust and pet dander và watch the weather for days when pollen is high. Switching lớn perfume-không lấy phí & dye-free detergents, cosmetics, và beauty products (you may see non-allergenic ingredients listed as hypoallergenic on sản phẩm labels) also can help.

If you”re taking medication, follow the directions carefully và make sure your regular doctor is aware of anything an allergist gives you (lượt thích shots or prescriptions). If you have a severe allergy, consider wearing a medical emergency ID (such as a MedicAlert bracelet), which will explain your allergy and who lớn liên hệ in case of an emergency.

If you”ve sầu been diagnosed with allergies, you have sầu a lot of company. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) report that more than 50 million Americans are affected by allergic diseases. The good news is that doctors và scientists are working lớn better understand allergies, khổng lồ improve sầu treatment methods, và to possibly prsự kiện allergies as well.